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Class 11, Language Development Unit 6- Health and Exercise


Class 11, Language Development Unit 6- Health and Exercise

Unit-6, Health and Exercise


“Take care of your body. It’s the only place you have to live.” – Jim Rohn


You May Scoff….

Emma Young


Word Meaning:

Diet                                        – starve/fast

Excess                                   – overload

Merry                                    -cheerful

Determination                  – strength of mind

Cut back                              – reduce

Trim                                       - smart

Adiposity                             - a condition of being severely overweight, or obese

 Piling                                   – collecting

Epidemic                             - outbreak

Bulge                                    –swell/swelling

Pounding                            - thumping

Tarmac                                 – blacktop/pitch

Stock up                              - to get a large quantity of something for later use

Antibody                             - a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen (any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it)

Infection                              – illness/disease/contagion

Persist                                   - continue

Microbes                              -bacteria/microorganism

Flab                                       – excess weight

Indeed                                  -certainly

Potentially                          - possibly

Prevention                          -avoidance

Chill                                       - coolness

Tend                                      – be likely to

Bickering                             – backbiting/internal strife

Moderate                           - reasonable

Restriction                         - control

Ventral striatum               - an area of the brain that plays an important role in mood, learning and addiction

Craving                                -longing

Recommend                      – suggest

Urges                                    - a strong desire or impulse

Shivering                             -trembling

Abundant                            – plentiful

Exposed                               – covered

Deposit                                – leave

Shrink                                   – reduce in size

Thermostat                         a device to detect temperature changes for the purpose of maintaining the temperature of an enclosed area essentially constant

Nutritional                          –dietary

Endocrine disrupter chemicals (EDCs)        - chemicals that mimic, block, or interfere with hormones in the body's endocrine system (a system of glands that make hormones)

Leach                                    – separate

Interfere                               – obstruct

Thyroid                                 - a butterfly-shaped gland that sits low on the front of the neck

Regulate                              – normalize

Metabolic                            – related to the conversion of food into energy

Phthalates                          - a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break

Receptor                              - chemical structures, composed of protein (PPAR)

PPAR                                     - Peroxisome Proliteratior Activated Receptor) –gamma - known as the glitazone receptor or NR1C3 is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene

Circumference                  – boundary

Bisphenol A(BPA)            - BPA is an industrial chemical that has been used to make certain plastics and resins since the 1960s.

Accumulate                                   – build up

Elevate                                 – rise

Inflammation                    – swelling

Deceased                            –died

Insulin                                   -peptide hormone produced by beta cells

Ramble                                - walk

You May Scuff

(Emma Young)


This is an article about staying slim written by Emma Young based of different researches and their findings. We generally assume that dieting and exercise help us fighting against obesity. But the article suggests six surprising ways of balancing our body weight or obesity. They are:


Getting vaccination against infections, common cold viruses (such as Adenovirus-36/AD-36, microbes/microscopic organisms)


Reducing everyday stress and controlling room temperature: Calorie restriction instead, causes stress and the very stress increases the activities in ventral stratum causing craving for high calorie food.  Mindfulness, stress reduction and meditation techniques help control body weight. The lower temperature also controls obesity because in lower temperature, calorie burns to make us warm.


Avoid eating packaged foods: The food wrappings contain Endocrine Disrupter Chemicals (EDCs) such as, Phthalates and Bisphenol A which hamper the functioning of Harmon. This affects the process of metabolism, and they store fat and metabolizing glucose.


Not staying late night in the light: The twenty-four hours light and dark cycle known as circadian clock gene is affected by the light at night. The blue wave length of light at night from LED bulbs disrupts the circadian system which affects metabolism.


Move to the country: Urban and city areas are polluted and the dirt particles in the air causes obesity and diabetes. The polluted air elevates blood levels of a protein involved in inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha). In country/rural areas, the air is less polluted and there is a less chance of having obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Have a lie- in: Less sleep can cause obesity. Sleeplessness reduces leptin hormone which suppresses appetite and increases ghrelin hormone which stimulates appetite. Less sleep means more eat.



Researches and their Findings on Obesity


David Allison, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Ala,

v Not only humans but also animals are becoming heavier,

v The factors making animals fat are also contributing human obesity

v Diet control doesn’t control obesity: found through research on wild animals, lab animals, and other animals fully kept under diet control also became fat, hence it is found that there are other factors for obesity.


Nikhil Dhurandhar, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana

v Common cold viruses such as Adenovirus-36 or AD-36 boasts fat cell and its amount,

v Obese people have a chance of having AD-36 antibodies three times more than normal people,

v Children with AD-36 antibodies weighed an average of 23 kilograms more than the normal children,

v Microbes and microorganisms also make us fat,

v We must have vaccination against any kind of infection, virus, bacteria or microbes


Rajita Sinha, Director, Yale Stress Center, Yale University

v Our thought and behavior can weaken our health,

v Extreme stress causes weight reduction, but everyday stress leads to obesity,

v She made research on mice to find the relation between stress and obesity; calorie restriction made mice much more sensitive to stress and they choose more high fat food in comparison to the mice restriction free calorie.

v Stress increases the activity in the ventral striatum and these increases craving for high calorie food in those who have a habit of consuming less.

v Instead of counting on calorie, mindfulness, stress reduction and meditation technique help to control stress related eating of high calorie food.

Fiona Johnson, University College, London

v Room temperature increase causes obesity

v Less energy burns between the temperature 15 degree centigrade to 28 degree centigrade,





Simona Bo, University of Turin, Italy

v In six years, period of research on 1500 middle aged adults, living in higher temperature homes were about twice as likely to become obese.

v Shivering burns calorie,

v Accepts the connection between sleep and obesity

v Children having an average of about 6.3 hours sleep became fat in comparison to the children who slept 7.2 hours in average


Elizabeth Hatch, Boston University

v Endocrine disrupter chemicals such as phthalates and Bisphenol A cause obesity because they change the normal functions of hormone and hampers metabolic rate,

v Phthalate activate a receptor in PPAR gamma, involves in storing fate and metabolizing glucose,


Randy Nelson, Ohio State University, Columbus

v Mice exposed to light at night weighed 10% more than the mice experience a standard light/dark circle during the period of 8 weeks,

v Light at night might affect light/dark cycle or circadian clock gene changing individual’s metabolism (LED bulbs, blue wave light)


Xiaohua Xu, Ohio State University

v Breathing polluted air can cause extra fat to accumulate around our stomach and also make cells less sensitive to insulin, increasing our risk of developing type 2 diabetes,

v Mice exposed to air heavily polluted with the fine particles for 6 hours a day, five day a week, for 10 weeks had about 5% more abdominal fat than the other inhaled filtered air,

v Pollution rises blood levels of a protein causing inflammation called tumour necrosis factor alpha


John Pearson, Harvard University

v Found association between pollution and obesity,


Rachel Taylor, University of Otago, New Zealand

v Children between age 3-5 age, who sleep less than the average of 11 hours are more likely to be overweight by the time they are 7 years old,



Ways with Words:

A. Ten words in the bold face in the text correspond to the definitions below. Match the definitions with the corresponding words.


Words in Bold Face

Determination, trim, adiposity, highlighted, bulge, nevertheless, boosts, persist, flab, bickering, restricted, urges, inflammation, deprivation


a. in spite of what has just been said or referred to – nevertheless

b. a strong desire or impulse – urge

c. the ability to continue trying to do something, although it is very difficult – determined

d. to attract attention to or emphasize something important – highlighted

e. arguing about things that are not important – bickering

f. not having things or conditions that are usually considered necessary – deprivation

g. continue to exist – persist

h. soft loose flesh on a person’s body – bulge

i. to improve or increase something – boost

j. a limiting condition on something – restriction



Determination: The first element of success is the determination to succeed.

Trim: I just want to trim my hair.

Adiposity: He recommended dieting for losing my adiposity.

Highlighted: The words highlighted in red color are important.

Bulge: What is that bulge in your mouth?

Nevertheless: She was very tired, nevertheless she kept on working.

Boost: The Theater managed to boost its audience by cutting ticket price.

Persist: She persisted in her denial.

Flab: Fight the flab with exercise!

Bickering: Will you two stop bickering!

Urge: It is never necessary to urge her to study.

Inflammation: The drug can cause inflammation of liver.

Deprivation: She is studying the effect of sleep deprivation.


B. The words ‘restriction’ and ‘awareness’ are nouns with the suffixes ‘-ion’ and ‘-ness’. Make a list of as many words as you can which end in ‘-ion’ and ‘-ness’.



Words ending in ‘-ion’

Words ending in ‘-ness’

Dedication, addiction, restriction, suffocation, modification, identification, simplification, multiplication, desertification, classification etc.

Gratefulness, beautifulness, mindfulness, unpleasantness,

Shyness, coyness, aimlessness etc.

The greatest natural wealth a nation has is its people, and its success relies on how they are cared for. Our healthcare system affects our ability to take part in the global economy. It also makes a significant contribution to economic progress, as healthy population lives longer and is more productive.
The countries which do not give emphasis on the health of their citizens are proven to have poor growth rates. For a nation, to climb the success ladder rapidly, its people need to be perfectly fit and healthy. Quality healthcare system has to be accessible and affordable for everyone, not an unreachable dream.
Both the state and the individuals have an equal role in ensuring the health of a nation. However, to improve public health, a government should be more responsible and can make important efforts. It should provide quality and nutritious food for its citizens. An adequate local public health infrastructure should be assured. Healthy communities and healthy behaviors should be promoted. Prevention of the spread of communicable disease should be necessary. People should be protected against environmental health hazards. There should be the provision of easy health services. Health centers and hospitals should be established in the remote parts of the country.
1. Talk about your feelings
2. Keep active
3. Eat well
4. Drink sensibly
5. Keep in touch
6. Ask for help
7. Take a break
8. Do something you’re good at
9. Accept who you are
10. Care for others



A. Write whether the following statements are True, False or Not Given.

a.    During the holidays people eat and drink more than usual. True

b.    Getting too little exercise and eating too much is the reason why people put on weight. True

c.    David Allison’s research involved studying rats under laboratory conditions. False (Wild animals, lab animals, and others)

d.    You may need to go shopping for clothes if you come down with a cold. True

e.    Adenovirus-36 (AD-36) decreases the percentage of fat in the fat cells. True

f.     Vaccination against infections could be used in the future to prevent obesity. False

g.    People under severe stress can experience breathing difficulties. Not Given

h.    A study indicates that mice that have never been on a diet choose fatty food when given a choice between high calorie or low calorie food products. False

i.      Rajita Sinha has been studying the connection between brain activity and behavior. True

j.      Specific hormones regulate our appetite. Not given



B. Answer the following questions:

a. In what sense are the holidays a time to excess? When can a person weight?

The holidays are a time to excess because on those days people eat and drink a lot for fun and enjoy forgetting everything. There are several causes of obesity but eating more and moving less is a vital reason.


b. According to David Allison, which factor contributes to excess obesity?

According to David Allison, only diet control does not control obesity but there are several factors causing obesity such as different viruses, infections, microbes, everyday tension/stress, room temperature, packaging food consumption, late night stay in LED bulb light, living in polluted areas and sleep deprivation.


c. What, according to Dhurandhar, can be the way of preventing fatness?

Get vaccinated against different viruses, infections, microbes can be the way of preventing fatness.


d. What is the relationship between chill and obesity? How can saying ‘om’ help reduce fatness?

Everyday chill/stress increases the activity in the ventral striatum and this activity increases craving for high calorie food which leads obesity. Mindfulness, stress reduction and meditation techniques help to decrease obesity. Meditation saying ‘om’ helps reducing stress and keeps peaceful. It is relaxation and spiritual word.  


e. Why is it necessary to be careful while buying plastic packaged fatty food?

It is necessary to be careful while buying plastic packaged fatty food because the packaging contains Endocrine Disrupter Chemicals (CDCs) such as Phthalates and Bisphenol A which change the normal functions of hormones regulating metabolic rate resulting in storing fat and metabolizing glucose.


f. Why does Nelson suggest avoiding blue wavelengths of light at night?

Nelson suggests avoiding blue wavelengths of light at night because it affects light/dark cycle altering circadian system and changes metabolism.


g. How does breathing polluted air affect one’s fatness?

Polluted air can cause extra fat to accumulate around our stomach and make our cells less sensitive to insulin (appetite hormone) which regulates metabolism. So breathing polluted air causes fatness.


h. What is the link between sleep and weight?

Sleep deprivation reduces appetite suppressing hormone called leptin and increases appetite stimulating hormone called ghrelin. Less sleep means more to eat and more to eat means put on weight.



Critical Thinking

a. What do you do you to keep yourself fit? What food do you avoid and why?

Who doesn’t like to keep himself/herself fit! Everybody wants to look slim and smart but the lack of self discipline and determination we do not control our eating habit and do not de regular exercise. We celebrate different holidays eating and drinking a lot without being health conscious. As far as I am concerned to keep myself fit, I follow healthy behaviors strictly. I am a health-conscious person as I believe on “Health is our wealth.” I never prefer to have junk food. I always like to eat balanced died having all the nutrients in a proper amount. I strongly believe that regular exercises help me to keep fit and healthy. Every morning I get up at 5:00 a.m. and do physical exercise for one hour. The main reason of having my body healthy is sleeping eight hours regularly. I also do regular check up of my body. I never drink alcohol and smoke. The foods we eat also cause obesity so I am always conscious while I am having food. I avoid packaged foods, oily and spicy food.


b. Healthy citizens are the greatest asset of a country. What can a state do to keep her citizen healthy?

The best profitable investment a nation can make is to invest in the health of its citizens. Our ability to grow as a country is strongly linked to our health. Having an educated and skilled workforce is not adequate. Physical and mental well-being are essential for the productivity. When people are sick, the consequences extend beyond the well-being of the nation affecting families and communities.



b) How can a person be mentally healthy? Provide about ten tips to a person to stay mentally fresh and healthy.


Ten tips to a person to stay mentally fresh and healthy:


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