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Facing Death by Johan August Strindberg Summary and Exercise || Grade 12 English Literature

Facing Death by Johan August Strindberg Summary and Exercise || Grade 12 English Literature 

Facing Death by Johan August Strindberg Summary and Exercise || Grade 12 English Literature


Johan August Strindberg was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. Strindberg is known as one of the fathers of modern theatre. His work falls into two major literary movements, Naturalism and Expressionism. He is widely read in Sweden and internationally to this day.






Period, Unit/Single Set


TIME & PLACE- 1880s, French Switzerland



1. MONSIEUR DURAND, a pension proprietor, formerly connected with the state railroad

2. ADÈLE, his daughter, twenty-seven

3. ANNETTE, his daughter, twenty-four

4. THÉRÈSE, his daughter, twenty-four

5. ANTONIO, a lieutenant in an Italian cavalry regiment in French Switzerland in the eighties

6. PIERRE, an errand boy

7. RENE- son of Durand, died when he was child

8. MOTHER- dead, used to waste money by playing the lottery, was scolded the majority of time, threatened with becoming a prostitute

9. MIMI- cat




Durand seems to be looking over the lake and the tops of churchyard cypress trees, Lake Leman, with the Savoy Alps and the French bathing-resort Evian from an open door of his dining room stuffed with a long table. With the turned-up sleeves and putting on an apron the elder daughter of Mr. Durand, Adele enters into the dining room with a tray of coffee from the kitchen. Durand advises her with limited answers regarding his plans for burning down the house. He begins to tell his life story only to have Adele state that mother did not lie to them growing up. Durand shares the truth.



i. love and sacrifice of a father to his children

ii. Family, financial crisis

iii. Economic failure




Featuring the main Character Mr. Monsieur Durand, a widower and a father to three daughter (and a son died already in his childhood) Adele, Annettee and Therese. August Strindberg in his one act play 'Facing Death' dramatizes a heroic sacrifice made by the protagonist Durand. Mr. Durand who was a formerly railroad worker, has lost his wife and a son. He is in a financial crisis and sacrifices his life for the sake of his love to his three daughters however he receives scorn and contempt from his daughters. The piling up bills from different shops shows that the family is having an economic burden despite letting out his house to lodgers. After his wife passes away, he is having hard times for the sake of his daughters. Before his wife died, he had unhappy life with her and even his daughters took their mother's side. To save his daughters, Durand plans to burn down his house and poison himself to get the fire policy cash for the family. This is the secret he opens to his eldest daughter Adele and advices her not to tell anybody.   



August Strindberg, a Swedish dramatist, has written the play "Facing Death" which begins with a conversation between the protagonist, Monsieur Durand, and his daughter, Adele. They are discussing about the financial crisis in the family. The protagonist Monsieur Durand, a former railroad worker and widower is shown in financially improvised condition. Mr. Durand a father to three daughters-Adele, Annette, and Therese, has done everything for the sake of his daughters but they don't see bright future for themselves. Now he has turned his home as lodging for making money. Every attempt he has made got nothing than derision and mockery. Mr. Durand is a determined person and makes a plan to ensure his daughters' financial futures by facing a tragic death.

Adele blames her father's for not fulfilling his obligation to his daughters and the family. Mr. Durand must pay dues and bills at a variety of locations, including the grocery store, bakery, and butcher shop, which have been unpaid for a long time. The father compliments candles more than the meal and other things as the story of Facing Death progresses. Adele appears sad to be receiving Antonio, a paying guest, because the family does not have enough money to pay for breakfast, so she asks her father to go meet him. She stands by her mother and believes that if she were still alive, the family would not be in such a financial dilemma because she would handle it appropriately. All three daughters, as well as Adele appear unhappy and unsatisfied with their father's role in the family. In the meantime, Antonio arrives for breakfast.

Durand informs Antonio that the family has suffered a loss in business and that they are unable to provide basic needs for the family. Antonio wishes to stay with the family for another month as a guest. He wants to pay in advance, but Durand refuses to accept his offer, publicly admitting that the family is no longer capable of running the lodging business. In response to Antonio's enquiry about whether Durand is a Swiss citizen by birth, he affirms. As Durand is stepping outdoors to get bread, the youngest daughter, Therese joins the stage. She is so happy to find Antonio there. Antonio compliments her attractiveness before talking about her cat. Then Antonio embraces her and wraps his arms over her neck, which irritates Durand. He threatens Antonio to leave the area since he is upset with him. His daughters become enraged and sit silently watching their father's misdeeds.

They are also unhappy and upset with their father because of his careless behavior toward the family and guest Antonio. Durand is on his way to collect funds for the family. He tells the daughters to put out the fire and shut all the doors and windows. He inquires about Therese's relationship with Antonio. When she agrees to be in a relationship with him Durand advises her to marry him. Therese begs her father's pardon for being rude to him and for not favoring and dismissing him. They are perplexed as to whether he will return or not in such a vital situation.

Durand returns home and reveals his past life with his wife or their mother, including how they met and fell in love, how they settled in Switzerland after obtaining neutralized citizenship despite the fact that their mother was French, and how he eventually abandoned their mother and joined France in the war against Germany. Their parents' property has been damaged as a result of their mother's irresponsibility and rash speculation. Even if, following the loss of his beloved wife, he blamed himself for all the flaws and problems.

Finally, Durand reminds Adele that she must look after her sisters and exposes the house's most important fact. Due to a lack of funds, Durand decides to set fire to the house and to poison himself. He encourages Adele, the eldest, to keep the facts hidden and use the family's fire insurance to save them. Then he takes poison and sets fire to the house so that the family can sue the fire insurance company for a big sum of money if he dies in the fire, and the play ends.



The setting of the drama "Facing Death" is a dining room of Monsieur Durand, the primary character in the drama, who is standing in the doorway, staring outside. Meanwhile, his daughter Adèle enters from the kitchen, carrying a tray of coffee-related items. She's dressed in an apron with rolled-up sleeves. She asks her father Durand if he has gone for the coffee-bread as she walks in. Durand responds that he hasn't gone since his chest hurts. He claims, however, that he has sent Pierre (a helper). She is irritated by her father's decision to send Pierre to work because they must pay for him. They are suffering from the lack of tourists visiting their residence for almost two months. Adèle accuses her father of failing to provide financial support for the family. She claims that she has been working tirelessly for the family's survival for a long time. Durand agrees with her and says that he and his daughter Adèle have done many efforts to support the family financially since the mother (Durand’s wife) died. Adèle has been working in the kitchen for the customers continuously and he has to take care of the service, the fires, sweep and clean, and deliveries of the food. However, the other two sisters Annette and Thérèse are not working to support the family. Adèle then inquires about her father's payment of their home's fire insurance. Durand responds that the insurance has been paid. While they are taking, Pierre enters with a basket and Adèle looks through in the bread basket. She discovers several overdue invoices instead of bread. Pierre receives a response from the baker, who states that he will not send any more bread until he is paid. When Pierre went to the butcher and grocer for supplies, they did the same.


In the basket, Adèle discovers a package and she opens packet and takes out some candles. Durand purchased the candles to commemorate the death anniversary of his deceased son Rèné. Adèle, then, remembers her dead mother and says that she was able to handle the financial difficulties but not her father. She informs her father that Monsieur Antonio is coming to have breakfast. Her concern is that now they are unable to serve their guest even with coffee and bread.


Durand asks his daughter Adèle to leave him so that he can speak with Antonio. Adèle then begs her father to arrange some funds so Antonio is unaware of their financial difficulties. Durand says that he can’t borrow any money because he has been borrowing for ten years. Instead, he wants him to know the reality. Antonio comes in and greets Durand. He asks for a cup of coffee. Durand informs him that they can no longer run their business due to financial crisis. He also tells that they are bankrupted.


Antonio recognizes their financial difficulties and wishes to assist them financially. Durand, on the other hand, refuses to accept the assistance. Instead, he chooses to embrace the crisis's consequence. He wants his daughters Annette and Thérèse to face the hardship so that they wouldn’t spend their life just playing, singing, flirting, and walking. Durand realizes that his two daughters Annette and Thérèse would do nothing until they find bread in the house.


Antonio wishes to remain in their home and wishes to pay money in advance in order to help them handle their financial difficulties. Durand rejects him once more. He informs Antonio that he does not want to maintain their current operation since it is unsustainable. Rather, it has simply exacerbated the problem. He claims that their house was uninhabited for three months last spring. Finally, an American family arrived and rescued them. He claims that the person who pays them a visit tries to exploit his poverty by flirting with his daughter. Thérèse was being kissed by her American son. He is now extremely concerned about his daughter's safety. Then, Durand goes out to get the bread.


Durand's youngest daughter Thérèse then enters, carrying a rat-trap. Her hair is down and she is dressed in a morning dress. She is presented in a thoughtless manner. She is giddy with expectation when she sees Antonio. Antonio compliments her on her beauty. She asks her sister Adèle for milk and cheese for her cat and rats after they converse for a time. Thérèse is told by Adèle to go collect them herself. Thérèse shows rude behavior and Adèle advises her to behave properly. Adèle, then, goes into the kitchen to bring coffee.


Thérèse and Antonio begin to talk about their relationship in the room. Annette enters the room completely clothed and with her hair styled. Antonio then wraps his arm around Thérèse and kisses on her lips. Monsieur Durand is enraged when he sees what Antonio accomplishes. Durand inquires about kissing with his daughter Thérèse, but she tries to disguise it and rather accuses her father of being a fraud. She blames her father has told a lie about being a Swiss.


Antonio is threatened by Durand to leave the residence immediately. Durand confronts Antonio and tries to attack him with a stick, but Thérèse and Annette intervene to protect him. Antonio inquires about the ten francs that he has given to Durand as they leave the house. Then Durand pulls a gold coin from his vest pocket and throws it towards Antonio. Thérèse and Annette follow Antonio and ask him not to leave them. Thérèse is enraged by her father's disrespectful treatment of the visitor. Durand inquires about Thérèse's relationship with Antonio once more. Thérèse tries to divert attention away from the situation by claiming that he did not kiss her. As a result, Durand requests that his daughter Annette confess the truth. Annette hides it as well, claiming she didn't see anything.


Adèle enters with a glass of milk, which she places on the table. Annette requests the milk and inquires about bread from Durand. Thérèse, on the other hand, grabbed Durand's glass of milk and refused to allow him drink it. Thérèse laments that her father is a spendthrift who forces his daughters to go hungry. Adèle is now blaming Durand and treating him like a lunatic. She claims that another bill arrived through the kitchen door, and that their father is too irresponsible to deal with financial difficulties.


Durand gets the bill. He takes a drink from a glass of water, sits down and lights his briar pipe, but Annette corrects him by taking the matches away and preventing him from smoking. Annette claims that he can afford to consume cigarettes and waste money on matches since he can afford it. Both Adèle and Thérèse hold their father responsible for their misery and financial difficulties. Durand begs his daughters to be polite to him and to give him something to eat because he hasn't eaten in a long time. His girls are also unconcerned about his hunger. He was so hungry that he ate the food that had been set aside to catch rats. However, the meal was not contaminated, and he was able to survive.


Durand recalls his wife threatening to turn herself into a prostitute after she had spent the housekeeping money on lottery tickets. This is something the daughters were never aware of. Durand is now emotional and speaking to himself. He claims that if he lights a candle, the home will burn down and he will profit. Meanwhile, a storm has begun to blow outside, and the sky has become cloudy.


Durand requests that the fire be put out once more, stating that if it catches fire there, they will receive no compensation from the insurance. Adèle is completely unaware to what her father is discussing. Durand instructs his daughters to follow his orders. Adèle enters the kitchen through the open door. Thérèse and Annette are told by Durand to go upstairs and close the windows and keep an eye on the draughts. Durand informs his daughters that he is leaving to obtain funds for them. He had life insurance of 600 francs but he sold it but his family will receive 5,000 francs if he dies.


Then, if Thérèse is devoted to Antonio and he loves her, Durand proposes that they should marry. Thérèse recognizes her father's desire to die. Thérèse requests that her father refrain from doing so. Thérèse even begs her father's forgiveness for her cruel behavior. Thérèse understands how much her father loves them and returns the matches and milk she stole from him. Adèle inquires about Durand's life insurance coverage. Durand says he sold it a long time ago. Durand, on the other hand, is still covered by fire insurance. Durand intends to burn the house down and collect the proceeds from the insurance policy in order to provide financial security for his daughters.


Durand now informs his daughters about himself. Durand claims to have been born in France. Just before he reached the age of recruitment he fell in love with the one who later became his wife. To be able to marry, they came to Switzerland and were naturalized. When the last war broke out he was supposed to fight against his own country. Since he couldn’t ethically fight against his motherland, he hid his identity of being French and told everyone that he is a Swiss. Adèle didn’t believe what her father says because Adèle has had a strong trust in her mother. Durand describes his wife's personality. Because of her rash and negligent actions, she entirely destroyed their possessions. She squandered money on the lottery, leaving them in a financial bind. As a result, Durand must abandon his regular job and convert the property into a lodge in order to support the family. Durand claims that his wife gave the daughters a negative impression of him. He didn't say anything negative about their mother since he didn't want to hurt their feelings when they were small.


His wife continuously blamed him and Durand accepted everything so that his family wouldn’t ruin completely. However, his wife's negative perception of him persisted long after she died. Durand asks Adèle to take care of her sisters especially Thérèse who is the youngest.





Answer the following questions:

a. Have you ever observed your parents in a financial crisis? If yes, what was it like?

Ans:- After I passed my SLC, my father lost his job. There was no other means of income except farming. To manage household and education cost for his three children, he started tomato farming but that year the price of tomato was very cheap. I was unable to study science because of lack of money and I studied education in a public college. It was really bad experience.


b. Have you ever appreciated their selfless act for your sake? If yes how?

Ans:- I always appreciate my parents for sacrificing their happiness for my sake. They were always conscious about my education. Despite economic hardship they manage my education. They worked hard for us. I never forget their unconditional love to me.   






Answer the following questions:

a. Where does the play take place?

Ans:-  The story takes place in the dining room of Monsieur Durand's house.  


b. Why do the grocery, the baker and the butcher send their bills to the Durand household?

Ans:- Durand has not paid the due amount for the stuffs he bought from the grocery, the baker, and the butcher for a long time so they have sent their bills. The due amount has increased a lot and they are no longer willing to provide food without money.


c. Why does Monsieur Duran spend money on candles when he doesn’t have money to buy even bread?

Ans:- His dearest son Rene had passed away during infancy and his death anniversary is coming near. He wants to celebrate his death anniversary because his love to his son is still same as in the past. The most important thing is to celebrate his anniversary rather food stuffs. This shows that Mr. Durand how much loves his children.


d. Why did Monsieur Duran sell his life insurance?

Ans:-  Mr. Durand's economic condition was poor and there was no income. He had been relying on debts and the debtors had been asking their due amount. When there was no means to pay off the debt he sold his life insurance.


e. Why has Monsieur Duran paid fire insurance?

Ans:- He had fire insurance and had been paying the installments regularly. He was hoping to claim the fire insurance later after burning down his house by himself to get the compensation to help his daughters. If he did not pay the fire insurance, he could not claim later after the house is caught by fire.


f. How did Monsieur Duran and Mrs. Duran run out of their inheritances from both the sides?

Ans:- Monsieur Durand and Mrs. Durand ran out of their inheritances from both the sides by Mrs. Durand's carelessness and foolish speculation. and furthermore, the inheritances were utilized in bringing up their children as well.


g.Why does Monsieur Durand tell a lie about his birthplace?


Answer: Monsieur Durand tells a lie about his birthplace because of two different reasons. ▪ He fell in love with a woman before his age. He wanted to marry that lady. So he left his birthplace and moved to Switzerland. To save his and his wife's reputation, he tells a lie. ▪He fought against his own motherland France from the side of Switzerland. To hide this shame, he tells a lie. Monsieur Duran tells a lie about his birthplace for the sake of his wife and his inclined towards his nation or patriotism.


h. What business is Monsieur Durand running to make a living?


Answer: Monsieur Durand is running a boarding house to make a living. He has converted his house into a lodge to earn money. He provides lodging and dining services to his guests. There is quite a good facility like a homestay. Monsieur Duran is a pension proprietor. He runs a business of a Home Stay where provides welcomes the visitors and tourists like guests and offers services like food, beds, rooms etc. like that of a house and earns money by that.


i.What plan does Monsieur Durand have to help his daughters with money?


 Answer: Monsieur Durand plans to commit suicide and set his house on fire. He hopes to get compensation from the fire insurance policy so that he can help his daughters with the money. He wants to sacrifice his life for the sake of his three daughters. Monsieur has fire insurance and he plans to help his daughters with money by killing himself in the fire and burning his house. He knows that fire insurance company will provide his daughters large sum of money after that.



j. How does Monsieur Durand die?


Answer: Monsieur Durand dies committing suicide at last. He drinks poison to help his daughters with the amount of compensation from the insurance policy. Monsieur first sets the fire in his house and then he takes poison to show that fire has killed him to provide compensation to his daughters and he dies.




a. Sketch the character of Monsieur Durand.


Monsieur Durand is the protagonist (main character) of the play "Facing Death. He is a widower, the lodge owner and former railway worker. He is a financially ruined person who has three daughters. He is a loving, caring and responsible father as well as husband. He loves his country very much, too. He is now a widower who lives his daughters. But his daughters don't love him and regard him as not a good father or head of the family as he was unsuccessful in taking care of his family properly. All of them live in the lodge. The relationship between Durand and his daughters isn't good. Here, in this play, we find him so loving, caring as well as protective father. Due to his bankruptcy, he is spending his miserable life along with his three daughters. His daughters hate him and blame him most of the time. But he keeps on thinking about the well being of his daughters. He sacrifices his life for the welfare of his daughters who hate him. He is full of patience who endures injustice from his late wife and remained silent for the rest of his life, blaming her for the financial ruin. He is also a loving husband. He is a patriot too who loves his native France, although he is forced to live in Switzerland. He is a tragic hero who faces financial difficulties and eventually ends his life tragically committing suicide for the well being of his three daughters. . And, he sacrifices himself and his life for saving and fostering the bright future of his three daughters at the end.


b. How do we know that the Durand family has reached a dead end?


Answer: We know that the Durand family has reached a dead end by seeing their miserable state in their lodge. This family is completely bankrupt. When Mrs. Durand was alive, both husband and wife had lost their maternal and paternal inheritances. Mr. Durund and his daughters spend their miserable life in an economic crisis. Due to their miserable economic status, they have converted their living house into a lodge. Mr. Durand household has been borrowing money from others for years. There are numerous bills in the name of the Durand household which must be paid to different debtors. Among all family members, the condition of Durand is so bad. We find him living a tolerant life. He doesn't have good relationships with his daughters. His daughters hate him and blame him for many reasons. We even find that the family doesn't have money to buy bread for coffee. Due to hunger, we find Durand eating the rat's bait. This family has reached a dead end due to this financial crisis. Due to this financial hardship, Durand has planned to kill himself and burn down his lodge for the welfare of his daughter. Here, we find Durand successful in his deadly plan at last.


We know that the Duran family has reached a dead end due to following reasons: The Duran family is unable to manage or buy food, breakfast, and coffee for the family. The grocery, the baker and the butcher send their bills to the Durand family because the Durant family had ordered so many foodstuffs from their shops but had not paid the due. Durand states when his business was down for three months, he was helped by an American family. Durant sells his life insurance to pay due of a person who irritates him very much. The family has reached such dead end regarding financial crisis that Durand kills himself in the fire at the end to provide his death insurance money to his daughters. c. 'The mother, though already dead, seems to have had a great influence on the daughters, especially Theresa.' Do you agree? Answer: The mother, though already dead, seems to have had a great influence on the daughters, especially Theresa. I agree with the given statement. The following instances in the play justify this: Though out the play, all three daughters especially Theresa seems to be praising her mother very much in comparison to others, two even after her death. Theresa considers Duran as the responsible for all the problems and guilt of the family. She praises her mother mostly though out the play associating her to innocent and gentle family member of the family. All the daughters including Theresa have much respect and love for their mother. They have such a belief that if their mother had been alive, they would not have gone through such a terrible poverty rather their family would have been solved in any other way d. Discuss the relationship between Monsieur Duran and his wife. Answer: Monsieur Duran and his wife had mutual bond close connection. They were originally from France. They loved each other deeply and then they got married and shifted to Switzerland from France. They settled in France and received neutralized citizenship. They had very good and sound relationship but when he joined French army against the Germans, their relations got worse. Furthermore, Duran degraded his relationship with his daughters and wife too due to misunderstanding among them. His wife, Mrs. Duran lost her parental inheritances completely because of her carelessness and foolish speculations. As his family relation got worse, he became compelled to depart from his business and continued his pension.


c. ‘The mother, though already dead, seems to have had a great influence on the daughters, especially Theresa.’ Do you agree?


Answer: Yes, I agree with this statement. Here in this play, we find that the mother has had a great influence on her daughters, especially Theresa. While their mother was alive, she used to teach the children to hate their father Durand. She made them obey herself. Most of the time, she blamed her husband and became successful to make the children against their father. After her death, Mr. Durand remained silent all his life because he did not want his daughters to doubt their mother's goodness. He is full of patience who endures injustice from his late wife and remained silent for the rest of his life, blaming her for the financial ruin. Due to the mother's teaching, all three daughters hate their father. They think that their father was the main cause of their financial ruin. Theresa is the one who has been influenced much by her mother. She shows her rude behavior most of the time. She snatches the matches away from her father when he was about to inhale tobacco with a briar pipe. Similarly, she seizes the glass of milk from him. She seems so unkind towards her father. Among the three sisters, she is the one who is filled with much anger against her father.




d. Discuss the relationship between Monsieur Duran and his wife.


Answer: The relationship between Monsieur Durand and his wife was not so good. While Mrs. Durand was alive, she used to blame Mr. Durand though she herself had ruined the ancestral property. Due to her negligence and foolish conjecture, she ruined the ancestral property. She used to spend household money on lottery tickets. After being abused, she threatened her husband to become a prostitute for money. He called her a lone soldier. She taught all her daughters to hate their father and filled their minds with all the negativities. She had become successful to divert her daughters' minds and made them against their father.


e. ‘Money determines the relationship between characters in this play.’ Elaborate this statement with examples from the play.


 Answer: Here in this play "Facing Death" money has played a very vital role in the life of Mr. Durand and his daughters. Money is the first and foremost thing that has become the sole cause behind all the problems in this drama. The economic hardships of Mr. Durand family have forced the entire family members to live a miserable life with a lack of various essential needs. This family has been presented in agony due to hunger. Due to the economic crisis, the family is unable to buy bread. Mr. Durand has to live with a hunger for a long time. He is even seen eating rat's bait in the drama. Mr. Durand is unable to provide for the basic needs of his daughters due to this economic crisis. The relationship between Mr. Durand and Mrs. Durand also deteriorated due to the struggle to lose wealth. The daughters do not like the father because he doesn't have enough money to support the family. Economic crisis leads them to convert their living house into a lodge. Here, we find that money determines the relationship between the characters. Mr. Durand's three daughters hate and blame him most of the time. They show their rude behaviors to him. The daughters do not even give a glass of milk because the father cannot bring bread. They snatched the glass of milk from him. They snatch the matches from him when he goes to smoke. They show their kind behavior to their father when their father says "I'll bring you money." They even kiss him lovingly. They use the words kindness and love. They even apologize for their rude behavior.


Obviously, money determines the relationship between characters in the play "Facing Death." All the obstacles arise in the Duran's family due to money. Money plays vital role in bonding the family members and detaching them from each other as well. Mrs. Duran loves her husband even if she loses her parental inheritances due to her own foolishness. Mr. Duran doesn't have sound relationship with daughters and his wife because he is unable to fulfill basic desires of them. Even at the end of the play, Mr. Duran burns himself in the fire and has poison to kill himself assuming that his daughter will get insurance money and their concept towards their father may be changed. Thus, it is money in the play that not only destroys the family relationship but also kills the protagonist of the play. Overall, it's clear that money can have an impact on love and relationships.


f. Monsieur Durand kills himself so that his daughters would get 5000 francs as compensation from the insurance company. What does his plan tell us about him?


Answer: In the play "Facing Death", Mr. Durand has been presented as a tragic protagonist who commits suicide by drinking poison and sets fire to his house to get compensation from the fire insurance company to improve the financial condition of his daughters. Mr. Durand has been spending his life in extreme poverty. Due to the financial crisis, he has been blamed most of the time by his daughters. He has been considered a failed and irresponsible father. His plan for the welfare of his daughters tells us that he is so caring as well as loving father who keeps on thinking much about his children's future. He is the man who sacrifices his life for the bright future of his three daughters.


In the play "Facing Death," Monsieur Duran, the protagonist is disgusted by all the family members especially his three daughters since they regard him as an unsuccessful and irresponsible father to fulfill the basic desires of them. The family faces grim poverty and many dues and bills to pay off. He is unable to make progress in his business. Even his daughters find him as responsible for all these obstacles in the family. The family is dealing with financial hardships in this drama. Facing no income, Durand decides to burn down the house and poisons himself. He advises Adele, the oldest, to keep the truth secret and cash in on fire policy to save the family. Thus, Monsieur Duran kills himself so that his daughters would get 5000 francs as the compensation and supports from the insurance company. g. Discuss Facing Death as a modern tragedy. Answer: Tragedy is a branch of drama that treats in a serious and dignified style the sorrowful or terrible events caused by sufferings, deaths, destructions and troublesome incidences. The play "Facing Death" is a modern tragedy since it ends with the tragic death of the protagonist, Monsieur Duran. He suffers a lot in the play in such a way that the main character in the modern tragedy suffers A modern tragedy uses elements like struggles, tussles, irony, sarcasm, hatred, grim poverty, murder or killing etc. As we go through the play "Facing Death", we see characters especially suffering from such above mentioned characteristics and go through difficult days that the protagonist like Monsieur Duran gets no anyway except killing himself burning in the fire and having poison so that his daughters may get the compensation or insurance money and their attitudes towards their father may change The family is unable to fulfill the basic desires of the family and many bills and dues remain due to family's grim poverty and loss in business. Thus, we can say that it is an example of modern tragedy.


g. Discuss Facing Death as a modern tragedy.


 Answer: By modern tragedy, we mean a play dealing with tragic events and having an unhappy ending, especially one concerning the downfall of the main character. The play "Facing Death" is a modern tragedy as it ends with the tragic death of the protagonist Mr. Durand. Modern tragedy deals with realistic representations and common problems. Realism and naturalism are the main features of modern play. The protagonist of a modern tragedy is a common man. Furthermore, modern tragedy deals with the problems of the modern individual such as dysfunctional family relationships, socio-cultural problems, loneliness, etc. Characters become victims of their socio-cultural environment, fate, economic class, gender, external environment, etc. Here in this play, we find the exact features of modern tragedy. This play has presented the life of common modern man with an immense crisis in his life. Due to economic hardships, he has been suffering a lot along with his three daughters. In the play, we can easily find problems of bad relationships and poor economic status. Mr. Durand, a common modern man has suffered a lot due to economic difficulties. This play also ends with the tragic downfall of the main character Mr. Durand. He kills himself and even burns his house for the welfare of his three daughters. This play has presented realism as well as naturalism.




a.Write a few paragraphs describing the role of the father in the family.


 Answer: Our country Nepal is a country of patriarchal norms and values where we find the vital roles of fathers in the families. In most Nepalese families, fathers are considered as the heads, who lead the entire family members. In the context of a Nepali family, the position of the father is at the top who decides the overall activities of the family members. The father in the family is the responsible person who takes care of his family and members. He is regarded as the bread earner who performs his duties being responsible for the welfare of his family members. The entire family members feel a sense of security in the presence of the father. Following are the roles of a father in the family:

Father is one who teaches and guides righteousness to his family members.

Father is the pillar of the family who faces a lot of hardships for the welfare of his family.

Fathers plays a very vital role in the development of a children’s emotional well-being

Fathers provides a feeling of security to his children, both physical and emotional.

Father plays supportive roles in his children's studies.

Fathers sets the bar for relationships with others. He is the man who shares the culture, tradition and rituals of the family to his children.

Father develops the confidence of his children.

Father sets rules for children's bright future

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